Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank - 1997

Kutuzova, Sofia N.1, Sergey V. Grigoryev1, Lyudmila T. Rumyantseva1, Janos Berenji2 and Robert C. Clarke3

1N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR), Bolshaya Morskaya 42 Street, 190000 St. Petersburg, Russia Tel.: + +7 812 314-4848 Fax.: +7 812 311-8762, e-mail: vir@glas.apc.org

2Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, M. Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Yugoslavia, e-mail: berenji@EUnet.yu

3International Hemp Association, Postbus 75007, 1070 AA Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tel/Fax: +31 20 618-8758, e-mail: iha@euronet.nl

        Kutuzova, Sofia N., Sergey V. Grigoryev, Lyudmila T. Rumyantseva and Robert C. Clarke 1998. Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank - 1997. Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(1): 28-31. Nineteen ninety-seven was the fifth year of the VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm Preservation Project. Of the 140 accessions sown, 113 yielded seed and 74 yielded more than 120 grams, allowing for storage and distribution to researchers.

     Hemp is a traditional Russian crop, which in the recent past occupied large areas in the country. However, in 1997 it was cultivated on only 10,000 hectares, mainly in Orel, Penza and Kursk Provinces and in Krasnodar Region.
        Along with the resurgence of international interest in hemp production, much more importance should be attributed to the preservation of the rich Cannabis genetic diversity concentrated in the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) collection. At the present phase, this task is a very difficult one due to the absence of experiment stations where the climate is warm enough and the summer daylength short enough to reproduce thermophilous late-ripening accessions, and due to increasing incidences of plants being stolen in the field. The necessity of spatial isolation of no less than 2 km apart, hampers efforts to provide security in isolated reproduction plots.
        The VIR collection harbors rich diversity of breeding resources, representing all kinds of biological traits and commercial properties. Local hemp samples from different regions of Russia demonstrate high ecological plasticity, which makes it possible to select from hemp populations, individual plants with high productivity for various climatic conditions.
        Nineteen ninety-seven was the fifth year of the VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm Preservation Project.

Materials and Methods
     In 1997, an attempt was made to restore the germination ability of 140 accessions. Maintenance of the collection took place in four sites within Russia (Pavlovsk, Ekaterinino and Kuban Experiment Stations of VIR, and Penza Institute of Agri-culture), two sites in the Ukraine (Ustimovka Experiment Station and the Institute of Bast Crops), and one site in Yugoslavia (Novi Sad Institute). The methods applied on isolated plots were the same as in the previous years [Lemeshev et al. 1994].

Pavlovsk Experiment Station of the VIR-
        Seventeen Cannabis accessions were planted on isolated plots. The spring weather was extremely dry. The rainfall in late May was insufficient to moisten the upper horizon of cultivated soil. This caused a pronounced reduction in the number of shoots emerging on the plots and delayed development of the plants. This is the reason why only 3 accessions of all planted ones yielded adequate amounts of seed (k-143, k-144 and k-155). In two accessions (k-106 and k-393), all plants were stolen. The remaining six accessions developed very few plants with yields of 2 to 15 g (Table 1).

Table 1. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Pavlovsk Experimental Station of the VIR.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
37 Ukraine, 'Novgorodskaya' did not
38 Russia, Mordoviya, 'Srednerusskaya' did not
106 Russia, 'Southern Krasnodarskaya' stolen
143 Russia, Novosibirsk, local 120
144 Russia, Altai Reg., local 320
155 Ukraine, Toguckinsk 75
170 Romania, Boiul-Carmagnola Cluj (from Italy) did not
284 Russia, Kitaskaya (from China ?), Primorye Terr. low
germination 2
296 Russia, Belorussia, Mogilev Reg., local late maturation
348 Russia, Mari Aut. Reg., local did not
360 Russia, Mari, local late maturation
393 Estonia, Egevskaya, Monoecious 'Salyut' stolen
407 Hungary, Monoecious Vengerskaya (I. Bosca) did not
415 Kazakhstan, East, Dioecious late maturation
472 Armenia, Araratsky, local did not
515 Russia, Kemerovskaya, local low
germination 10
529 Russia, Primorski Krai, local low
germination 12

Ekaterinino Experiment Station of the VIR-
        Twenty-eight accessions of the Middle Russian type were planted on isolated plots. Due to the spring drought two accessions did not germinate, and six accessions developed into sparse populations. In summer, the weather was favorable for the development of hemp, but eight accessions were cut by thieves. Eighteen accessions were safely re-produced, three of which yielded less than 50 g of seed (Table 2).

Table 2. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Ekaterinino Experimental Station of the VIR.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
44 SVERDLOVSKAYA, RUSSIA or Ukraine, 'Southern
Sozrevayushchaya 1' (YUSO-1)
51 United States 400
58 Russia, Khabarov, local 35
60 China, Manchuria or Yugoslavia, local ? 60
75 Russia, 'Staro-Oskolskii Uluchshennyi' (SOU) 46
81 Latvia, local stolen
82 Ukraine, 'Glukhovskaya 2', monoecious 150
83 Ukraine, Glukhov, Hybrid 19 250
84 Ukraine, Glukhov, Hybrid 3 stolen
90 Russia, Altai Reg., local low
92 Russia, Nizhegorod (YUS-58) stolen
97 Russia, Krasnodar Krai, local 50
101 Russia, (from Italy) stolen
103 Russia, Stavropol, Nevinnomy 250
110 Russia, Altai Reg., 'Smolenskii Kryazh' 300
116 Russia, Moldova, local 250
123 Ukraine, Transcarpathia, local 502
126 Ukraine, Transcarpathia, local 220
129 Ukraine, Transcarpathia, Perichinsky Reg., local 230
134 Ukraine, Transcarpathia, Volovatsky Reg., local 350
140 Russia, Perm Prov., Obyknovennaya stolen
142 Russia, Novosibirsk low
149 Ukraine, Glukhov (from Krasnodar) 20
150 Russia, Kuznet did not
152 Russia, Zaimskaya Prov., North did not
167 Russia, Sverdlovsk, local 350
208 Russia, Belorussia 60
391 Ukraine, Glukhov, 'Yuznaya Sozrevajucaya 6' (YUS-6) 150

Ustimovka Experiment Station, Ukraine-
        Thirty accessions were planted. Seven isolated plots produced sparse shoots because of drought, therefore the weight of seed yield in five accessions was less than 50 g. Two accessions were cut and stolen. The remaining 23 accessions produced satisfying seed yields (Table 3).

Table 3. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Ustimovka Experimenttal Station of the VIR.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
94 Russia, Gorkov, 'Pochinkovskii-2' 482
95 Russia, Gorkov, Malo-perevozskaya 230
118 Hungary, local 900
159 Russia, Krasnodar, Mestnaya Starodavnyaya 900
163 Spain, local stolen
165 Russia, Ifos? 300
179 China, North, Gui-din 7
196 Russia, Belorussia 40
200 Ukraine, West, Ternopol Prov. 384
202 Ukraine, West, Palvolochissky Reg., Ternopol Prov. 83
209 France, 'Chenevis' 430
287 Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk Region, local 202
289 Ukraine, Kirovograd, local 309
290 Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk Region, local 712
307 Ukraine, Poltav Reg. 77
308 Ukraine, Glukovskaya 1 284
309 Ukraine, 'Glukovskaya 3' 274
319 Ukraine, Poltav Reg., local 114
364 Hungary, 'Kompolti' 447
372 Russia, Tatarstan (Al'met'evskaya ?) 430
373 Ukraine, Kiev 910
374 Romania, 'ICAR 42/118' 215
377 Yugoslavia, Lescovashca 10
387 Russia, Primorskii, local stolen
418 Czechoslavakia, Rostislavska, local 30
445 Hungary, Unisexual 'Uniko' F1 704
446 Hungary, 'Kompolti' 14
450 Hungary, 'Kompolti' 465
452 Czechoslavakia, Prague, 'Fibrimon 56' (from France) 535
453 Hungary, Hybrid B-7 F1 910

Kuban Experiment Station of the VIR-
        Twenty-two accessions of southern hemp were planted. On seven isolated plots no sprouts emerged, and on one plot seeds did not ripen. On three isolated plots only some branches of the plants remained after raids by thieves, hence a very small quantity of seeds was produced (5-15 g). Eighteen accessions were safely reproduced, though seven of them yielded less than 50 g (Table 4).

Table 4. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Kuban Experimental Station of the the VIR.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
74 Russia, Saratov Prov., local 300
131 Ukraine, Transcarpathia, Mukachevo Reg., local 600
181 China, North, Sor-sian 25
185 China, North, Shan-van 15
186 China, Gui-sui 5
190 Ukraine, Cherkass, 'Zolonotosha 1' 540
277 China, local 10
283 Russia, Sev. Osetinska Reg. 210
285 Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk Region, local did not
298 China, Keshan 175
320 China, North, Bai-tszin-chzhun too late
328 China, North, 'Lan'-ma' 145
340 Bulgaria, G-3 did not
368 China, (kripnosemyannaya) 280
461 Ukraine, Glukhov, 'Southern Sozrevajucaya 9' (YUS-9) 590
474 Poland, local 85
479 Yugoslavia 42
480 Poland, 'Fibrimon 21' (French from Bulgaria) 450
482 Armenia, local did not
484 Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata, Dikorastushchaya 28
499 Ukraine, 'Southern Monoecious Sozrevayushchaya 14'
534 Ukraine, Khel'nitsk 37

Institute of Bast Crops, Glukhov, Ukraine-
        Eight accessions were maintained here. Three of them yielded very small number of seeds as a result of sparse germination and theft (Table 5).

Table 5. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Glukhov Institute of Fiber Crops.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
164 Russia, Ifos 5
211 Germnany, Bernburg 78142 250
304 China, No. 9 5
310 Russia, Krasnodar, local 300
454 Hungary, Hybrid B-7 ES 727
455 Uzbekistan, Samarkand 53
556 Hungary 250
561 Ukraine, 'Dneprovskaya Monecious 8' 5

Penza Institute of Agriculture-
        Twenty-one accessions of Middle Russian and southern hemp types were planted here. 3 of them failed to produce a seed yield for various reasons. 2 accessions yielded less than 50 g of seed [Table 6].

Table 6. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Penza Institute.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
65 Ukraine, Sumy Reg., 'Glukhovskaya 1' 270
73 Bulgaria, local 256
89 Russia, Altai Reg. did not
175 China, North, Shun-di 80
191 Ukraine, Cherkass, Zolonotosha, Hybrid 49 53
192 Ukraine, Cherkass, Zolonotosha, Chuiskaya-Toguchinsk 530
193 HUNGARY or Ukraine, Cherkass, Zolonotosha,
212 Germany, G-3 (from Bulgaria) 15
286 Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk Region, local 311
325 China, 'Ne-khe' 74
343 Ukraine, Odnodomnya Sredne-Russkaya 283
370 Bulgaria, local 320
389 Russia, Kradnador, Dikaya 474
427 Ukraine, 'Zolotonoshskaya 1' 545
428 Ukraine, 'Zolotonoshskaya 2' 406
451 Czechoslovakia, Prague, 'Fibrimon 24' (from France) 215
457 Uzbekistan, Samarkand, Kattakurgan Reg. did not
459 Ukraine, Glukhov, Poltavskaya Monoecious 170
466 Chile, local 325
473 Russia, Krasnodar, Hybrid Krasnodarskij 10 350
492 Russia, Krasnodar, 'Maikopskaya-2' did not

Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia-
     Fourteen hemp accessions of Yugoslavian origin were safely reproduced here; Domaca (k-8), Niska (k-19), Canapa (k-376), and local samples (k-17, k-20, etc.). 100-300 g of seeds of each accession will be sent to VIR and be added to the collection after quarantine testes (Table 7).

Table 7. Results of 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis germplasm reproduction at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia.
Catalog No. Name and/or County, Region Seed yield
8 Yugoslavia, Domaca Province 8,500
17 Yugoslavia, local BR393 1,800
19 Yugoslavia, Niska 6,800
20 Yugoslavia, local BR148 2,500
23 Yugoslavia, local BR189 5,300
26 Yugoslavia, local BR265 6,500
30 Yugoslavia, local BR140 3,800
32 Yugoslavia, local BR125 1,300
376 Yugoslavia, 'Bolognese' (from Italy) 1,300
442 Yugoslavia, 'Novosadska' 1,500
486 Yugoslavia, local 3,500
488 Yugoslavia, local 200
489 Yugoslavia, local 500
490 Yugoslavia, local 300

     In total, 140 hemp access ions were planted in 1997. Of these samples, 14 accessions either failed to germinate or developed only critically small number of plants. 14 accessions were fully or partially cut and stolen. 113 accessions were reproduced, but 26 of this number yielded less than 20 g of seed. Thus, no less than 43 accessions of 1997 hemp materials, which either failed to yield fresh seed reproductions, or produced less than 20 g, need to be included in the 1998 planting.